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  • Child protection and losing custody of child in Germany

    Similar to other parts of the world, parents have the responsibility and obligation to take care of their children in Germany. However, in Germany, local communities and government agencies play a crucial role in safeguarding children and young individuals from parental neglect and abuse. Germany's child protection system explicitly states that children must be able to develop as healthy as possible. In order to ensure their well-being, they need to be cared for and protected from all threats. It is the parents' responsibility to ensure that their children's fundamental rights are protected. It is the state's responsibility to ensure that parents perform this task adequately. A court can take away custody of a child from their parents if they fail to protect the child repeatedly. A court will only do this if it is necessary for the welfare of the child and there is no other way to protect them from danger or abuse. Withdrawal of custody of a child in Germany Any situation that adversely affects the child's wellbeing both physically and psychologically may lead to the loss of custody. This is not limited to physical violence, but if the parents are neglectful in terms of the child's welfare, then a judge can decide to withdraw the custody from them. This includes not feeding the child properly, not getting medical attention for the child, or allowing the environment to be hazardous. A parent who is negligent in keeping their own children safe may lose custody rights. The courts and the Department of Social Services remain responsible for assessing the case. Physical violence as well as verbal abuse can trigger the authorities. It is important to note that verbal violence towards the child is not the only form of abuse; a conflict between the parents that escalates to shouting and verbal violence can affect the welfare of the child and put it at risk. Losing custody of the child has nothing to do with the parent’s religion or nationality. In the past, many German parents have lost custody of their children due to negligence. Every EU member country agrees on the protection of children. However it is implemented differently in different countries. Child protection system is very stringent in the Scandinavian countries. What happens when the child is taken away from the parents in Germany? Initially, the children are taken to a care center or nursery. In some cases however, they are handed over to foster families later. Pflegefamilies are families that take care of children professionally. It is, however, not an easy process to remove a child from its parents. The children's family must be in very difficult conditions to reach this point. A number of meetings are held with the parents, who are counseled to change the way they treat their children. When circumstances call for a speedy withdrawal, the Social Services Department will assist the police. There are cases in which children should be taken away from their parents until a court decision has been made, and the Social Services department will be in charge of the child until the case has been decided. Losing custody of the child has nothing to do with the parent’s religion or nationality. In the past, many German parents have lost custody of their children due to negligence. Getting custody of the child back in Germany. In the event that the parent loses custody of the child, there are often legal avenues to try and get custody back. To restore custody of the child, the parents can go to the court and object to the actions of the police or social service department. You need to have a lawyer and the lawyer can negotiate the terms with the court. It is however recommended to have a lawyer insurance before reaching out to one. After losing custody of a child in Germany, am I allowed to see my child? If a parent loses custody of their child in Germany, they may wonder if they are still allowed to see their child. In most cases, the answer is yes. However, there are some exceptions. If the reason for losing custody was related to harassment or sexual exploitation of the child, the parent may not be allowed to have contact with the child. In such cases, the court may issue a restraining order to protect the child from any potential harm. If the reason for losing custody was not related to harassment or sexual exploitation, the parent may still be allowed to see their child. In fact, the court may even encourage regular visitation to help maintain a healthy relationship between the parent and child. It's important to note that the specific terms of visitation will be determined by the court on a case-by-case basis. The court will consider the best interests of the child when making decisions about custody and visitation. In some cases, the court may require supervised visitation, where a third party is present during the visits to ensure the safety and well-being of the child. Overall, losing custody of a child in Germany does not necessarily mean that a parent will never see their child again. However, it's important for parents to understand that the court's priority is to protect the best interests of the child, and visitation may be restricted in certain circumstances. Legal referances to the child protection rules in Germany Below are some references to the legal aspects of child protection in Germany that may be useful for those seeking more detailed information: The Child and Youth Welfare Act (Kinder- und Jugendhilfegesetz - KJHG): This act is the main legal reference for child protection in Germany. It sets out the responsibilities of various agencies and authorities in safeguarding the welfare of children, and covers a wide range of issues related to child abuse and neglect, child welfare services, child custody, and juvenile justice. The Criminal Code (Strafgesetzbuch - StGB): This code contains provisions that address crimes against children, such as child abuse, sexual exploitation of children, and child pornography. It provides a legal basis for prosecuting offenders and sets out the penalties for these crimes. The Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch - BGB): This code contains provisions on family law, including child custody and visitation rights. It outlines the legal framework for determining custody arrangements and visitation schedules in cases where parents are separated or divorced. The Family Court Act (Gesetz über das Verfahren in Familiensachen und in den Angelegenheiten der freiwilligen Gerichtsbarkeit - FamFG): This act sets out the procedures for family court proceedings, including those related to child custody and child protection. It provides a framework for resolving disputes between parents and establishing custody arrangements that are in the best interests of the child. The Federal Child Protection Act (Bundeskinderschutzgesetz - BKiSchG): This act was introduced in 2012 and strengthens the legal protections for children in Germany. It includes provisions for preventing child abuse and neglect, improving child welfare services, and ensuring that children's rights are upheld in all legal proceedings. Overall, these legal references provide a comprehensive framework for protecting the welfare of children in Germany. They establish the responsibilities of various agencies and authorities in safeguarding the interests of children, and provide a legal basis for prosecuting offenders and resolving disputes related to child custody and child protection. German Civil Code Section 1666 Judicial measures in the event of endangerment of the child's well-being German Civil Code Section 1666a BGB Principle of proportionality; Priority of public aid

  • How Much Does A Good Salary In Germany Look Like?

    ne question that often comes to people's minds when they consider moving to a different country for work would be, "How good is my offer?"? So you've been offered a job in Germany but you're wondering what a good salary in Germany is? Well, you are not the only one! This article should provide you with all the information you need to make a final decision. The salary you earn in Germany should allow you to afford your desired lifestyle in the country. According to I am expat, you will be in the above-average income class in Germany if your gross income exceeds 47.700 euros a year. How Much Does A Good Salary In Germany Look Like? Germany offers a wide range of salaries for different professions, and they depend on different cities. It is common for different people to have different opinions about what a good salary should be. There are some cities where you will make more money, but there may also be a higher cost of living. How Good Is A Salary Of 60.000 Euros In Germany? As you do your research, you may see in different forums that 60.000 euros gross a year in Germany is considered to be a good gross salary. It is well above the average salary of 47.700 euros per year and slightly above the national average. Approximately 18% of the national population earns this amount or more. Having a gross annual salary of 60,000 euros, and assuming you are in tax class 1, you will receive about 5,000 euros, or 2,969 euros after taxes each month. A single person can make a good living with this income What is the salary Requirement For Blue Card In Germany Your German employer is entitled to pay you the same salary as your German coworkers. To prevent workplace exploitation, the German Federal Employment Agency (Bundesagentur für Arbeit) checks your salary before approving your work permit. As per the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge - BAMF) you must earn at least 56,400 euros a year in order to qualify for an EU Blue Card. For employees in the occupational fields of mathematics, computer science, physics, engineering, the natural sciences, and human medicine (not including dentistry), a reduced annual gross salary of 43,992 Euros applies (as of 2022 - the salary thresholds are readjusted for each calendar year). Minimum Wage in Germany? Deutsche Welle - a German public, state-owned international broadcaster reported that German lawmakers have approved raising the minimum wage from 9,82 euros per hour to 12 euros per hour by October, 2022. After this change in October, 2022, the government has stated that the minimum wage will remain unchanged at least for the next 15 months, and it will only be reevaluated in January, 2024. In general, a full-time employee would be paid 1.610,48 euros a month for working 41 hours a week. While a part-time employee earns an average of 765,96 euros per week for 19,5 hours of work. Lastly, it is ultimately up to you to decide whether the salary offered to you is right for you. Take into account your take home pay, the cost of living in the city in which you intend to live, quality of life, and other expenditures such as loans and rent.

  • How to Apply for a Job Seeker Visa in Germany?

    A job seeker visa may be an option for you if you have the skills and qualifications to work in Germany. This visa lets you stay in Germany for six months and search for a suitable job.Finding a matching job within the six months allows you to apply for a work permit or a residence permit to stay and work in Germany. Germany is one of the most attractive destinations for skilled workers who want to pursue a career in Europe. The country offers a high standard of living, a strong economy, a diverse culture and a rich history. If you are a qualified professional who wants to work in Germany, you may be eligible for a job seeker visa. A job seeker visa is a type of long-term visa that allows you to stay in Germany for up to six months and look for a job that matches your qualifications. You cannot work during this period, but you can attend interviews and network with potential employers. If you find a suitable job within the six months, you can apply for a work permit or a residence permit to stay and work in Germany. In this article, we will explain: What are the requirements for a job seeker visa What are the documents you need to prepare How to apply for a job seeker visa How to find a job in Germany How to convert your German Job seeker visa and Apply for a Work Permit or a Residence Permit In our experience, IT and related areas don't tend to emphasize having German certification. However, if your area of interest requires you to know German such as marketing, medicine, consulting, etc. or work with German regulations you might need to have a language certification before you can apply. Requirements for a Job Seeker Visa According to the German residency act, section 20, to apply for a job seeker visa, you need to meet certain requirements, such as: Having a recognized university degree or equivalent qualification in your field of expertise Having sufficient funds to cover your living expenses during your stay in Germany Having health insurance that covers your medical needs in Germany Having a clear criminal record and no security threats Having basic knowledge of German language (optional but recommended) Documents for a Job Seeker Visa You also need to prepare some documents to support your application, such as: A valid passport and two recent passport-sized photos A completed and signed application form A cover letter explaining your motivation and goals for seeking employment in Germany A detailed curriculum vitae (CV) highlighting your skills and qualifications Copies of your academic certificates and transcripts Proof of your work experience, such as reference letters, contracts or payslips Proof of your financial means, such as bank statements, sponsorship letters or blocked account confirmation Proof of your health insurance, such as policy documents or certificates Proof of your language proficiency, such as test results or certificates (if applicable) How to Apply for a Job Seeker Visa You need to submit your application and documents at the German embassy or consulate in your home country. You may also need to pay a visa fee and attend an interview. The processing time may vary depending on the workload and availability of the visa officers. You should apply at least three months before your intended date of departure. If your application is approved, you will receive a job seeker visa sticker on your passport. You can then travel to Germany and start looking for a job. How to Find a Job in Germany You should register your address at the local registration office (Einwohnermeldeamt) within two weeks of arrival. You should also contact the Federal Employment Agency (Bundesagentur für Arbeit) to get advice and assistance on finding a job. You can use various sources and methods to search for jobs in Germany, such as: Online job portals and websites, such as Make it in Germany, Indeed, Monster, LinkedIn, etc. Newspapers and magazines, such as Die Zeit, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Süddeutsche Zeitung, etc. Professional associations and networks, such as VDI, VDE, BDI, etc. Career fairs and events, such as Jobmesse Deutschland, Expolingua Berlin, Jobvector Career Day, etc. Personal contacts and referrals, such as friends, relatives, colleagues, former employers, etc. You should prepare a professional and customised application for each job you apply for, consisting of: A cover letter that introduces yourself and explains why you are suitable for the job A CV that showcases your skills, qualifications and achievements Copies of your relevant certificates and references A portfolio or work samples (if applicable) You should also be ready to attend interviews and tests, either in person, by phone or online. You should dress appropriately, be punctual, be polite and confident, and answer the questions honestly and clearly. Can I work in Germany with a job seeker visa? When applying for a job-seeker visa in Germany, it's important to understand that the visa does not allow immediate employment. The primary purpose of the job-seeker visa is to provide individuals with the opportunity to actively search for suitable job opportunities in Germany. However, it does not grant the right to work during this initial period. Once an individual has successfully found adequate employment, their visa can be modified to a residence permit for employment in Germany. This means that they can transition from being a job seeker to being granted permission to work in the country. Adhering to this requirement ensures compliance with German immigration regulations, which prioritise having a valid employment offer before granting the authorization to work. How to convert your German Job seeker visa and Apply for a Work Permit or a Residence Permit If you find a job that matches your qualifications within the six months, you need to apply for a work permit or a residence permit at the local immigration office (Ausländerbehörde). You may need to provide some additional documents, such as: A copy of your employment contract or offer letter A confirmation from the Federal Employment Agency that your job does not require priority check (Vorrangprüfung) or that you have passed it A proof of your salary and social security contributions A proof of your accommodation in Germany If your application is approved, you will receive a work permit or a residence permit card that allows you to stay and work in Germany. Depending on the type and duration of your permit, you may need to renew it periodically. Conclusion A job seeker visa is a great opportunity for skilled workers who want to explore the German labor market and find their dream job. However, it is not a guarantee that you will find employment in Germany. You should do thorough research on the job prospects and requirements in your field before applying for this visa. You should also be prepared to face some challenges and competition in finding a suitable job. If you are determined and qualified, you may be able to achieve your career goals in Germany.

  • How do you get your degree recognized in Germany?

    For you to be able to work in Germany, your degree or professional certificate may need to be recognized according to the German system. Anerkennung in Deutschland or simply Recognition in Germany is the central information portal of the Federal Government for recognizing foreign professional qualifications in Germany. At both the federal and state levels, the portal implements the legal regulations on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). What is it like to work in Germany? Do you want to work in Germany in the field in which you earned a professional qualification in your home country? There is no need to have a confirmed job offer before applying for recognition. This is also possible from abroad. Find out more about working in Germany at Expatova Recognizing your professional qualifications Obtaining information about reference occupations and receiving advice Find your profession in the Recognition Finder: (the site is availalbe both in German and English). On this page, you will find information about different German professions, and you can select the reference occupation that is relevant to you and figure out whether recognition is needed for you. There are several factors to consider, including your profession and your country of origin. When looking for a job, recognition is always helpful. You can find contact information for a recognition advisory center and the authority responsible for processing your application through the Recognition Finder. Even though the competent authority communicates only in German, the advisory centers often offer guidance in a variety of languages. It's a good idea to seek advice before submitting an application for recognition. Guidance is also available if you are unable to locate your profession in the Recognition Finder. In addition, you will receive information about financial support. The application process In order to apply, you must hold a professional qualification such as completion of vocational education and training or completion of a degree. Application for recognition must be submitted to the competent authority that is responsible for you. Information regarding the necessary documents is provided by the recognition finder. The cost of obtaining recognition varies depending on the profession and the federal state. The cost of recognition generally ranges from 200 to 600 euros. However, a detailed estimate of the costs will be provided to you by the competent authority. Evaluation of the application Upon receipt of your application, the competent authority processes it. Approximately one month after the application is submitted, you will be notified. Depending on the situation, this may indicate that the competent authority has received all the documents or that additional documents need to be submitted. A comparison is made between your professional qualification and that of the German reference occupation by the competent authority. During this process, your professional experience and other qualifications are taken into consideration. Receipt of your recognition notice It usually takes three to four months for the recognition process to be completed. Following this, you will receive your recognition notice. The full recognition of your qualification means that it is fully equivalent to the German qualification. Recognized partially or not recognized at all? It is possible that your notice indicates that there has been no recognition or partial recognition on your application. However, you may also be able to work without full recognition depending on your profession. You may also be able to complete additional training in Germany in many cases. You will receive advice from the competent authority regarding your options. On your way to Germany You can find all the information you need about living and working in Germany at If you enjoyed the content and feel like you learned something from it, consider supporting us by buying us a Ko - fi

  • Do I need a degree for IT jobs in germany?

    The IT sector in Germany is one of the fastest-growing industries, with a high demand for skilled professionals. While having a degree in computer science or related fields is always a plus, it is not always a requirement for certain IT jobs in Germany. Instead, employers often look for candidates with a specific set of skills and experience that match their job requirements. It is in fact not necessary to have a recognized degree in order to work in the IT sector in Germany if you have worked in the IT sector elsewhere for at least three years within the last seven years. All you need is a job offer in Germany with a salary of at least 50,760 EUR gross (before taxes). Is it necessary for you to learn German before you can work in Germany? Perhaps you are thinking wrong! How to get a German residence permit? Once you have an offer from a local company in Germany, you may need a German work visa and a residence permit depending on where you are from and how long you intend to stay. Germany offers different types of work permits, most of which are available to those who have found a job here. Documents required for German residence permit: Application form filled out online Your passport Biometric passport photo Job offer with the salary information German language certificate. Proof of previous IT-related experience Be sure to check the official website of the German Embassy or Consulate General in your country of residence for additional requirements. Once you have all documents ready, book an appointment in the German consulate. You must submit your application along with supporting documentation on the date of your appointment. Upon verification, the German consulate will make a decision regarding your application. Upon approval of your application, you will be granted a visa for working in Germany. As soon as you arrive in Germany, you should register at the local citizens office and apply for a long-term residence permit at your local foreigners office.

  • Do I need sponsorship to work in germany?

    An individual who is a skilled worker and is a non-EU citizen has the opportunity to obtain a work permit in Germany if they have a job offer from a local company. This work permit will allow the individual to live and work in Germany for a specified period of time, with the possibility of extending it in the future. If a non-EU citizen is a skilled worker and has a job offer from a local company in Germany, they have the chance to acquire a work permit. This permit enables them to live and work in Germany for a set time period, which can potentially be extended. Can a German company sponsor my application for a work permit? There is no such thing as "visa sponsorship" in Germany. You can apply for a work permit in your local German consulate or embassy if a company in Germany is willing to offer you a job contract. Comparatively to other developed countries, Germany offers a faster and easier way to obtain a work permit and migrate. Scammers may contact you very convincingly and claim they can help you get a job sponsorship in Germany! It is important to be aware of such emails and phone calls and to never respond to them. How can I find a job in Germany? In short, you should check LinkedIn or Xing and apply for positions that match your qualifications and experience. It is likely that the recruiter will offer you the position after the (several) interviews if they believe that you are a competitive candidate. Upon receiving the job offer, you can follow the German work permit application procedures and apply for a German work visa and work permit based on your nationality and where you reside.

  • How to get Child support advance or Unterhaltsvorschuss in Germany

    The maintenance advance is a special aid for children of single parents. Maintenance advances can be obtained by single parents who are not receiving child support or don't receive it regularly from the other parent. It is usually difficult for single parents to raise their children alone. It is exacerbated if the child does not receive maintenance from the other parent, or does not receive it on time. Under the Maintenance Advance Payment Act, the maintenance payment should ease this special life situation. Who receives an advance on alimony? Children who live with a single parent and receive no or no regular maintenance from the other parent are entitled to an advance maintenance payment. There is no income limit for the single parent. It is not necessary to obtain a court order for maintenance against the other parent. In case the other parent is unable to pay the child maintenance, the state will claim the payment made as a maintenance advance. Here are the details: Children up to the age of 12 (until the 12th birthday) can receive maintenance advances without time restrictions. Children between the ages of 12 and 18 (until the 18th birthday) can also receive maintenance advances. The prerequisite for this is that they are not dependent on benefits under the second book of the Social Security Code (SGB II) or that the single parent earns at least 600 euros gross in SGB II. Amount of maintenance advance Maintenance advances are based on the age of the children and have been monthly since January 1, 2022: for children from 0 to 5 years up to 177 euros, for children from 6 to 11 years up to 236 euros, for children from 12 to 17 years up to 314 euros. Please check the family portal for the current information on Unterhaltsvorschuss.

  • German Job Opportunities for Non-German Speakers: Is It Possible?

    It is easier for foreigners to find employment in Germany without having German language skills in technology startups and established multi-national companies Yes, there are jobs in Germany for non-German speakers; otherwise I wouldn't have worked here! It is easier for foreigners to find employment in Germany without knowing German in technology startups and established multi-national companies; on the other hand, foreigners seeking employment in medical fields, marketing, consulting, etc have a much harder time finding employment in English here. Applying for a job here does not require you to already live in Germany. It is not uncommon for German companies to hire people from abroad and assist them with relocation. How likely is it that English-speaking jobs will be available in Germany? As far as we know, finding a job in Germany that speaks English is not very difficult. It is common for companies - mostly multinational companies - to use English as their official language. There are thousands of job listings on LinkedIn and Indeed that require only English skills in Germany. It is also likely that you will find English jobs in native German companies that hire for their English-speaking clients. What Are Your Chances Of Finding An English-Speaking Job In Germany Without German skills? We have observed in our past experience that those who look for a job in a tech company, or a startup in any field are most likely to find employment in Germany that only requires English skills. In contrast, jobs requiring you to know German or work with German regulations are the least likely to be offered to you if you are unable to speak the language. Those in marketing, medicine, consulting, etc. are hard to find a relevant position. Tips To Find An English-Speaking Job In Germany Consider Startup Jobs Over Big Companies It is common for startups to have English as their official language since they are open to having an international team. You Need To Look In The Right Place For Jobs Among many job portals out there, LinkedIn, Indeed, Xing - known as Germany's LinkedIn, Make It In Germany, Munich Startup Jobs, Startuplist, Arbeitnow are few websites that can help you land the right job in Germany without speaking German. Furthermore, if you've already shortlisted a few companies where you'd like to work, check out their own career websites to find opportunities that may not be listed elsewhere. Allianz World Wide Careers, Microsoft Careers, Jobs at Brainlab, Zalando Careers are just a few. In addition, make sure your LInkedIn profile is up to date. On LinkedIn, recruiters contact potential candidates directly, and a lot of great companies post their jobs, so you can apply directly. Choose cities with a larger population Among the top five cities in Germany are Berlin, Munich, Frankfurt, Hamburg, and Dusseldorf, which are home to most large organizations as well as start-ups. Some of these companies include Allianz, Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Munich RE, and Twitter. What if you cannot find an English-speaking job in Germany? It is likely that you will need to learn German if you are unable to find an English-speaking job in Germany. When participating in meetings and performing non-customer-facing jobs, companies usually require expats to have a B2 language level. Finally, you may have difficulty finding an English-speaking job at first in Germany. However, the key to success is extensive research and a never-say-die attitude. In our experience, the chances of finding English-speaking employment in Germany are higher if you focus on tech companies and startups. We still suggest you ask the recruiter if they consider candidates without German skills even if you come across a job listing in German.

  • Additional child allowance and benefits for education

    Families with low incomes and single parents are supported by the child supplement program. You can submit the application online. Working parents who earn just enough to meet their family's needs may benefit from the child allowance as an additional support. Since July 1, 2022, the child supplement has been raised up to 229€ per month, which covers a child's needs in conjunction with the child benefit. Those who receive the child supplement are also entitled to benefits for education and participation and can be exempted from day-care center fees. How do I apply for a child allowance? If you meet the following requirements, you can receive the child supplement for each unmarried child up to the age of 25: Your child lives in your household and receives child benefits. Your income must not exceed a certain minimum limit. For couples, the minimum income limit is EUR 900 gross, and for single parents, it is EUR 600 gross. In addition to the child allowance, the child benefit, and any housing benefit you are entitled to, you can provide enough income to support your family. Your income, along with the child allowance, is not so high that the child allowance is reduced to zero. You can also receive the child allowance if your income from work, the child allowance and the housing benefit is no more than 100 euros below the SGB II entitlement. You can submit the online application on the website of the Family Benefits Office. You can use the KiZ-Lotsen of the Familienkasse to check whether you are eligible for a claim. If you have questions about the child supplement, your local family benefits office will help you. How does the education and participation package work? Anyone who receives child supplement or housing benefit is also entitled to benefits for education and participation. The education and participation package consists of cash and non-cash benefits. Providing benefits in kind ensures that these benefits also reach children and young people as individual support. Education and participation benefits include: One-day excursions from school, Kita or day care, Multi-day class trips from school, Kita or day care, 156 euros for the provision of school supplies per school year, Assumption of costs for public transport tickets for school children - even if the tickets can be used for other journeys, Assumption of costs for appropriate learning support for school children - regardless of an immediate risk of being promoted, Free communal lunches in schools, daycare centers, or after-school care centers, 15 euros per month for social and cultural activities like sports clubs and music schools. Many cities or municipalities also offer vouchers or special discounts. An overview from the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs shows which contact points can be used to apply for benefits for education and participation. Checkout the official website of Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend here for more info. On your way to Germany You can find all the information you need about living and working in Germany at If you enjoyed the content and feel like you learned something from it, consider supporting us by buying us a Ko - fi

  • Munich student’s special payment program and how to get it

    Munich offers special payments for students who start school for the first time or change from a primary school to a secondary school. In addition to the statutory flat rate for school supplies, Munich city council provides a voluntary special payment. Students attending their first school in Munich or going to a secondary school (middle school, junior high school, grammar school, comprehensive school) can receive this service. In order to qualify, applicants must already receive benefits from SGB II, SGB XII, or Asylum Seekers Benefit Act (AsylbLG). Documents required A confirmation from the school that the child will be attending school for the first time or transferring to a secondary school. An information letter or current decision from the Munich job center if you draw the unemployment benefit II. There are no application fees for this program. How does the special payment work? Students are eligible for a payment of 103€ for the statutory school supplies at the beginning of the school year. A payment of 51.50€ will be made in the second half of the school year. Additionally, the City of Munich offers a school start fee as a voluntary benefit to students who start school. It is intended for many purchases such as stationery, paint boxes, workbooks, etc. Who receives the special payment? Those who are entitled to subsistence benefits under SGB II, SGB XII or the Asylum Seekers Benefits Act (AsylbLG), who attend school for the first time in Munich or switch to secondary school (middle school, junior high school, grammar school or comprehensive school) receive the special payment. How do you get the special payment? When the special payment is requested, you will receive it in cash at the checkout counter of your responsible social community center. A transfer to your account is also possible if you request. Applications can be submitted until October 31st of the current year. Please contact your local social center to begin the application process. Make sure to carry all the required documents with you when you get there. On your way to Germany You can find all the information you need about living and working in Germany at If you enjoyed the content and feel like you learned something from it, consider supporting us by buying us a Ko - fi

  • What is Fiction certificate - Fiktionsbescheinigung in Germany

    With the fictional certificate, the immigration authorities are able to prove that the applicant has a provisional right to reside in the federal territory. This is frequently required for the issuance or extension of a residence permit. In order for a foreigner to reside legally in the federal territory, a legal regulation is necessary for the period between the application for a residence permit and the decision of the foreigners authority.The foreigner, therefore, is given a Fiction certificate for the processing period, which proves that he is legally and not punishable for remaining on federal territory. The following cases are essentially regulated in the provisions of the law on foreign nationals: 1. Residence with a residence title (Fortgeltungsfiktion) If the foreigner has a residence title and applies for an extension or another residence title in good time before it expires, the previous residence title is considered to continue to exist until the foreigners authority has made a decision This circumstance has the consequence that all effects linked to the residence permit continue to apply, including the permit to work and travel across Schengen and non Schengen countries. In concrete terms, this means that the foreigner is treated as if he had a residence permit, with all the legal consequences. In addition, Fortgeltungsfiktion entitles you to (re-)enter Germany (also without a visa). 2. Late application (Duldungsfiktion) Foreigners who submit their applications late are considered to have suspended deportation from the time they apply. As a result, foreigners are treated as if they had a toleration certificate. The person cannot be deported until an official decision is made on the application, even if he does not have a residence permit. 3. First-time application for a residence title (Erlaubnisfiktion) The stay of a foreigner who is legally resident in Germany and applies for a residence title without having one is considered permitted until the application is decided. The so-called positive states, who were able to enter the federal territory without a visa, are regularly affected by this regulation. For foreigners applying for their first residence permit, gainful employment is prohibited until the application is decided. The fictional permit does not entitle you to (re-)enter Germany. 4.Electronic residence permit (eAT) and employment Upon issuance of the eAT for training or employment, this residency title includes training and employment to the extent permitted by the foreigner's residence authority. The fictional certificate will include this permission. In addition, this regulation also applies in the event of a change of employer, continued employment after a previously fixed-term employment relationship or even first-time employment. The fictional certificate is issued on a standard form. Special case: Recognized persons entitled to protection Due to the special legal situation, the fictional effect for the group of persons recognized as entitled to protection (persons entitled to asylum, recognized refugees and persons entitled to subsidiary protection) does not only arise when they apply for a residence permit, which is why the provision on the fictional certificate is not directly applicable. A fictional certificate will be issued to those affected to demonstrate the lawfulness of their stay, retaining their previous residence permit. With the help of the fictional certificate, the residence permit and the proof of application from the immigration authorities, people who are affected can open a basic current account or apply for social benefits among other possibilities. Some frequently asked questions (FAQ) about German Fiction certificate - Fiktionsbescheinigung

  • Residence permit in Germany - Explained

    For the nationals of third countries ( non EU / EEA countries ) a residence permit / Aufenthaltstitel is required to live or work in Germany. If you already have a German national visa, converting it to a residence permit is rather easy. A German residence permit is a legal document that grants non-EU citizens the right to live and work in Germany for a certain period of time. There are various types of German residence permits, including those for employment, study, family reunion, self-employment, and entrepreneurship. Do I need a residence permit to work in Germany? It depends; your nationality and the duration of stay depends on whether you need to apply for a residence permit at all. The Citizens of EU / EEA member countries are exempted from the requirement of having a visa or residence permit in Germany. Citizens of these countries can freely travel, live or work in Germany without a visa or residence permit. However, they are obliged to register at the local citizen’s office / Bürgeramt if they stay in Germany for more than 90 days. While the citizens of Switzerland are free to travel within the EU, they are required to apply for a residence permit for the purpose of living or work at the local Foreigner’s office / Ausländerbehörde Citizens of non EU / EEA countries Citizens from the countries that are not part of the EU and EEA may need to apply for a German residence permit depending on their nationality. Tourists and business travellers who leave the country within 90 days of arrival don't need a residence permit. That doesn't mean that you don't need a visa. You may have to apply for a Schengen visa depending on your nationality. However, If you plan to work in Germany, even if your period of stay is less than 90 days, you need to apply for a German national visa and then convert it into a residence permit. Longer stays If your stay in Germany exceeds 90 days, you need a residence permit. However, if you are nationals of the USA, Australia, Canada, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea, you can enter Germany without a visa and then apply for a residence permit in Germany. A German national visa is required for the citizens of other countries and it has to be applied at the German consulate or embassy in your home country (or sometimes in the country you reside if not living in the home country while applying for the visa) before you can travel to Germany. The residence permit can be applied at your local foreigner’s office once you arrive. Different types of German residence permits Three types of residence permits are issued in Germany. Temporary residence permit / Aufenthaltserlaubnis This is a one year valid permit and extendable as long as your circumstances stay the same. This residence permit is issued for a limited period of time and for specific purposes. This may be applied to attend training or take up employment. Staying for family reasons is also possible and is relevant for those seeking protection, especially in the context of family reunification. Permanent residence permit / Niederlassungserlaubnis You are entitled to apply for a permanent residence permit after completing a certain period of time in Germany. This is generally five years but people with certain highly-qualified skills or the graduates of German universities may get an exception. The permanent residence permit gives you the right to stay in Germany without a time restriction. On your way to Germany You can find all the information you need about living and working in Germany at If you enjoyed the content and feel like you learned something from it, consider supporting us by buying us a Ko - fi

  • How to get Steueridentifikationsnummer - Tax ID in Germany

    The Federal Central Tax Office; Bundeszentralamt für Steuern or simply BZSt issues a unique tax identification number to everybody who’s registered in Germany. In order to handle the taxes of each registered person in Germany, the BZSt introduced a centralised system in 2007 replacing the old tax identification method. Every registered person regardless of a citizen or expat including newborns receives a Steueridentifikationsnummer or tax ID. You need to submit your tax ID to your employer in order to pay your salary and calculate the tax. As per the German tax laws and tax classes, you have to pay the highest tax if you don't have a tax ID. How to get a Steueridentifikationsnummer - Tax ID in Germany Getting a tax ID is not a big task. In fact, your tax ID will automatically be processed and issued as soon as you register in Germany. Two to three weeks after you register in Germany, you’ll receive your tax ID via post. The Federal Central Tax Office has created a great amount of articles and guidelines on their website to help you resolve all queries related to tax ID. Please check the articles for more information. I don't know my tax ID; how do I find it? If you already have a tax ID, and you forgot it, you can find it On your salary slips (payslip) On your income tax report On the document you got from the Tax department (Bundeszentralamt für Steuern), when you registered your address for the first time I lost my tax ID. How do I get a new one? You normally do not get a new tax ID. However, if you have lost the letter you received from Bundeszentralamt für Steuern or cannot find the tax ID in any of the above documents, you can visit the nearest Finanzamt with your residence permit or passport and ask them. They will get you a printout with your tax ID in it.

  • Can I delete a Schufa entry?

    You can apply for your Schufa report on It explains your creditworthiness In general, the Schufa score values ​​indicate the probability of how you meet the payment obligations in the future. With the so-called base score , an industry-independent assessment of your creditworthiness is carried out. Your probability of fulfillment is shown as a percentage - i.e. an assessment of how likely it is that you will make the payments as contractually agreed. This percentage is always recalculated on a quarterly basis - with numbers close to 100 corresponding to a great position and optimal creditworthiness. The Schufa reference value In addition to the base score, there is something called the Schufa reference value / Schufa Orientierungswert. This value range shows how good your credit rating is. It is calculated at the time the Schufa credit report is generated. The respective numbers in detail: 100-190 : There is no payment history information about you. So you have a low risk of payment difficulties. 200-299: There is no information on payment problems here either, but you have a slightly increased risk of payment problems. 300-499: There is no information on payment problems here either, but your risk of payment problems is rated as greatly increased. 500: Information about payment disruptions is available here. 600: Information from public registers of debtors is available here, e.g. in insolvency proceedings. The Schufa reference value is created from the weighted average of the Schufa industry score. Schufa has developed different scoring models for different industries. It was taken into account that your payment probability when buying a car can be different than when buying on account by mail order. Here for example the bank score or the mail order/eCommerce score. The value ranges from 9999 (rating level A, here there is the lowest risk of non-payment) to 0 (rating level P, highest risk of non-payment). Can I delete a Schufa entry? There could be chances that negative entries are stored in your Schufa record. In that case, you should first apply for your free self-disclosure from Schufa and check the data that has been stored about you. Check this article to see how you can get a free Schufa report. If you notice some incorrect entries, you have the right to have it corrected. These entries must be blocked by Schufa while the information is being checked. However, this does not actually delete the affected entry immediately. You can only have them corrected. They are then automatically deleted 3 years after completion. In the long term try to improve your credit rating by not overdrawing your overdraft facility as often and make sure that your expenses are not higher than your monthly income. Maybe it's high time you should seriously think about your financial habits too! By the way, if you are looking for an apartment, did you know that most furnished apartments in Germany ( listed in Spotahome, Wunderflats) do not ask for a Schufa? If you are looking for your first apartment, this can be an effective method. On your way to Germany You can find all the information you need about living and working in Germany at If you enjoyed the content and feel like you learned something from it, consider supporting us by buying us a Ko - fi

  • Do I need to transfer my German residence permit to my new passport?

    It doesn’t matter if your old passport has expired and a new one has been issued; your settlement permit or EU permanent residence permit remains valid in Germany. There are different websites publishing conflicting information on whether to apply for a new residence permit when you receive a new passport or not. However, we ask you to check with your local citizen’s office for a more concrete answer. In general, your settlement permit or EU permanent residence permit is still valid in Germany even if your previous passport has expired and you have already received a new passport. For re-entering Germany, you just need to show your old and new passport together and your previous settlement permit at the border control. Before traveling to another country, however, we recommend you to check with your respective local authorities or the embassy/consulate of your country about the entry formalities in good time before you leave Germany. Your temporary residence permit ends at the latest with the validity of your passport. If you have not yet received the extension of your residence permit, you need a fictional certificate. When traveling abroad, carry all documents proving your right of residence in Germany with you. This also applies to trips to another Schengen country.

  • How to get Schufa for free in Germany?

    Your Schufa record will be created automatically as soon as you open a bank account or a phone / cable contract in Germany. Did you know that most furnished apartments in Germany ( listed in Spotahome, Wunderflats) do not ask for a Schufa? If you are looking for your first apartment, this can be an effective method. If you have recently relocated to Germany, it is possible that you do not yet have a Schufa record. In this case, simply inform your landlord that you have recently moved to Germany and do not yet have a Schufa record. In most cases, landlords will understand. How do I get a Schufa for free In Germany, you have the right to access any data someone stores about you. There is no exemption for Schufa Holding AG, the company that issues Schufa. This rule can be used to your advantage when requesting a free Schufa report. Although the free Schufa report may look different from the paid one, both paid Schufa certificate as well as the free versioin have the same information. To get the free schufa report, go to the Schufa data copy page on the meineschufa website and enter your personal information and submit the form. Though the form asks for your passport and other informatoin, you only need to enter your name and address. Other details are not mandatory. A few days later, you will receive your Schufa Datenkopie by post. Unfortunately, you cannot get it by email. How different is free Schufa from the paid one? Well, it does not appear to be that different at all. It will actually be the main Schufa certificate that only the landlord and other parties will care about. It is important to note, however, that the inner pages of the paid version contain quite a bit more detailed information about your transactions. Compared to the free Schufa, it would contain much more information. Moreover, a paid Schufa record extract provides you with a Schufa score, which may be of interest to the banks. Get Schufa instantly You can also get Schufa instantly by paing 30€. You have this option in Websites like or immowelt also offer Schufa services for a fee.

  • Child sick benefits in Germany (Kinderkrankengeld)

    In Germany, parents are entitled to up to 10 days of Kinderkrankengeld per year, per child. If the child has a chronic illness, the number of days may be extended up to 25 days per year. During this time, parents can take care of their child at home without worrying about the impact on their work or income. If you cannot present at work due to the sickness of your child, your employer should continue to pay your salary for up to five working days. However, you need to present a doctor certificate to your employer. In certain cases, your employer will continue to pay your salary if it is in your contract. Otherwise, the statutory health insurance will pay the Kinderkrankengeld (child sickness benefit) during this period. If your contract does not cover the children's sick pay, you can still take off to care for your child. However, the statutory health insurance system will be paying your benefit out of the child sickness benefit (Kinderkrankengeld). How many children's sick days are parents entitled to? Parents with statutory health insurance can apply for child sick pay for 30 working days (single parents for 60 working days) per child in 2021 and also in 2022. In the case of several children, the entitlement per parent is not more than 65 working days and for single parents for no more than 130 working days. The special scheme for children's sick pay from the year has been extended to 2022. Kinderkrankengeld Requirements If you or your child are covered by private health insurance, you are not entitled to the child sickness benefit. You must be a salaried employee entitled for sickness benefit Your child is insured as a dependent to you Your child cannot go to the school or childcare due to the sickness A doctor has certified that your child needs care Your child’s age is 12 years or less You are covered by a statutory health insurance How much Kinderkrankengeld can I get? The amount of child sickness benefit you can get depends on your salary. Statutory health insurance companies will pay up to 90 percent of your lost net salary. Up to 100 percent may be paid if you received one-off payments such as holiday or Christmas bonuses in the 12 months before drawing the benefit. How to apply for Kinderkrankengeld in Germany To apply for child sickness benefits, first, you need to get a doctor certificate. The doctor will also provide you with the “medical certificate for receipt of sickness benefit in the event of a child’s illness” (Ärztliche Bescheinigung für den Bezug von Krankengeld bei Erkrankung eines Kindes). You need to fill out the specified area in the form to apply for the sickness benefit about your employer details as well as your bank details, etc. You should send both the doctor’s certificate and your signed application form to your employer as well as your health insurance company. Your health insurance company may ask for a certificate of earnings from your employer to calculate how much Kinderkrankengeld you should receive. The benefit will then be paid directly into your bank account. How long can I avail Kinderkrankengeld in Germany? In every year each parent may claim up to 10 days of Kinderkrankengeld per child, up to a maximum of 25 days in total. Single parents can claim up to 20 days per child - or a maximum of 50 days per year. Some frequently asked questions about Kinderkrankengeld in Germany

  • Parental benefits in Germany (Elterngeld in Germany)

    Soon after your delivery in Germany, you may be eligible to receive Elterngeld - a social benefit provided from the German social security system. Parental benefit is given to all new parents to manage the loss of earnings caused by the time off work due to the birth of your child. Parental allowance provides support for parents who work less or not at all after the childbirth to take care of the child. Parental allowance is available to each parent. While receiving parental allowance, you may work up to 30 hours per week. However, It is also possible to not work at all. Which means, you don’t have to interrupt your higher education or vocational training in order to receive parental allowance. Eligibility To become eligible for receiving parental allowance, You look after the child from his / her birth by yourself. You may work only up to 30 hours per week during the period you receive the allowance. You and your child must be living together in the same house. You must hold a permanent residence permit, or a work permit. You and your partner’s (if applicable) combined annual income must not exceed €500.000. You may also claim parental allowance if you look after a child from birth, even if it is not your own child, OR if you adopt a child aged up to eight years. Types of parental allowances There are three kinds of parental allowance: basic parental allowance, parental allowance plus, and the partnership bonus. You receive basic parental allowance for at least two months and up to your child's first birthday. If you both draw parental allowance, you can receive it for 14 months in total. You are free to divide up these months between the father and the mother / partners. You can draw basic parental allowance together, consecutively or alternately. Single parents are also entitled to the additional two months. Basic parental allowance ranges from 300 to 1800 euros per month, depending on your income prior to the birth of your child. As a rule, it amounts to 65 percent of your net income. Parents with a low income receive up to 100 percent of their net income. If you are working part-time while drawing parental allowance, this has an impact on the level of your parental allowance. Your income after your child's birth is taken into account. If you had no income before the birth, you can receive a minimum amount. If you have other small children or the newborns are twins, you may receive higher amounts. Use the parental allowance calculator to calculate how much exactly you can get. Parental allowance Plus You can extend the period of receiving the allowance with the parental allowance plus. Parental allowance plus is provided for twice as long as the duration of basic parental allowance. If you do not work after the birth, parental allowance plus amounts to half as much as basic parental allowance. If you work part-time after the birth, parental allowance plus may amount to the same as basic parental allowance in combination with part-time work. Parental allowance plus may be especially worthwhile then because it is the same or almost the same amount but can be drawn for twice as long as basic parental allowance. Parental allowance plus amounts to between 150 and 900 euros per month. You may combine both basic parental allowance and parental allowance plus to better use the benefits. Partnership Bonus Parents who share the responsibilities of the family and career evenly may receive the partnership bonus. It amounts to four additional months of parental allowance plus, which you receive if you both work part-time at the same time. If you are a single parent, it is enough if you alone fulfil the prerequisites. Single parents can claim the bonus by working for 25 - 30 hours per week for four months. How to apply for parental allowance? You can fill out and submit your parental allowance application online if you live in Berlin, Bremen, Hamburg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein or Thuringia with ElterngeldDigital. After the calculation, your data may be transferred from the parental allowance calculator to ElterngeldDigital. Which rules out the inconvenience of entering your details twice. The expansion of ElterngeldDigital to other federal states is in the planning phase. You may find the application forms for the other federal states here. You must submit your application to your parental allowance office in person or by post. Documents required to apply for the parental allowance Birth certificate of the child Copy of your passport Proof of income (employment contract, bank account statement, etc) It takes around four weeks to process your application and receive a decision in the post once you submit the application. On your way to Germany You can find all the information you need about living and working in Germany at If you enjoyed the content and feel like you learned something from it, consider supporting us by buying us a Ko - fi

  • Social security in Germany explained

    People who live and work in Germany contribute to the German Sozialversicherungssystem or social security. This is a collectively-financed system and it is designed to protect the livelihood of the people who need additional support. The system is mainly designed to support people with low income with various allowances and benefits to overcome their struggle in maintaining their livelihood although most of the unforeseen events in life are covered by the insurance. Social security ID (Sozialversicherungsausweis) Once you start making contributions to a statutory insurance scheme, you will get a social security ID (Sozialversicherungsausweis) to prove that you are a contributor to the system. The Social security ID is necessary to start a new job, claim benefits, or to start drawing pension. Benefits from German social security The German social security system facilitates various benefits and allowances as well as statutory health insurance, pension insurance, unemployment insurance, etc. The benefits are available to anyone who are in need to cover their basic subsistence costs such as rent and raising children: Maternity benefit (Mutterschaftsgeld) You are entitled to maternity benefit for six weeks before and at least eight weeks after the delivery if you are a member of a statutory health insurance scheme. You may claim benefits from the Federal Insurance Office if you are not covered by a statutory insurance scheme. Parental allowance Elterngeld or parental allowance is provided to both father and mother to support them during the first months of the delivery. The benefit covers the loss of income and helps both the parents to spend time with their new baby. Child benefits Child benefits or kindergeld supports parents for raising their children and providing them with basic things like food, clothing, education, etc. Child benefit is available to almost all parents in Germany. Child sickness benefit (Kinderkrankengeld) If your child is sick, you are entitled to take time off from work to take care of the child. While some employers pay your salary during this period, the public health insurance provider will support you otherwise. The Kinderkrankengeld also reimburses the loss of earnings partially. Sickness benefit (Krankengeld) You are automatically qualified for sickness benefit if you contribute to a statutory health insurance scheme. If you are unable to work due to illness, you will be covered for up to 78 weeks, either by your employer or by your health insurance provider. Housing benefit (Wohngeld) German social security provides housing benefits to those who have lower incomes to ensure everybody has adequate, family-friendly housing. You may apply for the housing benefit if you need support for rent (Mietzuschuss), or mortgage and home support (Lastenzuschuss), if you own a house. German statutory insurance system You are obliged to contribute to social security if you are employed in Germany. However, the contribution is split evenly between the employer and the employee. The average total social security contribution is around 20 - 22% of your salary. The monthly deducted social security contribution cover the following aspects: Statutory Health Insurance Unless you are self-employed or your annual income is more than 64000€, almost everyone is required to contribute to statutory health insurance. You can also choose to get private health insurance or voluntarily contribute to statutory health insurance if you are self-employed or your annual income is more than 64000€. Pension insurance (Rentenversicherung) You are obliged to participate in a pension insurance scheme if you work in Germany. Over time, your contributions build up to provide you with a basic provision for your retirement. However, you have a chance to choose whether to opt into the statutory pension insurance scheme or start a private pension plan if you are self-employed. Unemployment insurance (Arbeitlosenversicherung) Employees in Germany are required to contribute to arbeitlosenversicherung unemployment insurance. These contributions are used to provide unemployment benefits to anyone who is out of work. Occupational accident insurance (Unfallversicherung) Occupational accident insurance offers protection and assistance in the event of accidents or job-related illnesses happening at your workplace. If you are employed or in occupational training, you are automatically covered, no matter how much you earn. The insurance scheme also covers school-age children and students. If you are self-employed or run your own business, you can get voluntary insurance for yourself On your way to Germany You can find all the information you need about living and working in Germany at If you enjoyed the content and feel like you learned something from it, consider supporting us by buying us a Ko - fi

  • Types of employment contracts in Germany

    Like anywhere else in the world, you need to sign an employment contract (Arbeitsvertrag) before you can start working in Germany. As soon as your employer -to be- finalizes the interview and selects you as their most suitable candidate for the position, they will hand over a work contract (Arbeitsvertrag) with you. It will cover all the details of the agreements of your employment contract. Employment contract types in Germany While unlimited or permanent employment contracts are the most common type of employment contracts in Germany, there are several other types of contracts that employers can offer to their employees. These alternative types of contracts provide more flexibility to employers and employees, depending on their specific needs and circumstances. Permanent contract (unbefristeter Arbeitsvertrag) Unbefristeter Arbeitsvertrag or a permanent contract is an unlimited contract that lasts as long as the employee can work in an organization. It usually starts by a six month long probationary period. The contract may only be terminated if you wish to resign or if the employer finds a valid and legal reason to fire you. Limited or fixed term contract (befristeter Arbeitsvertrag) These contracts are valid only for a limited period of time. Usually, these contracts are renewed on the completion of the term. However, if the employer chooses to end the contract after the completion of the period, there’s no chance to question back. However, a fixed-term contract can only be renewed for three times and not exceed two years. Minijob contracts These contracts are for under-skilled part time workers who only get paid below the average salary level. Usually the people who take a minijob contract are paid a salary of up to €450 per month. The employer pays just some or none of the health insurance contribution in a minijob contract. These payments are subsidized by the government. These contracts are usually popular among students looking for a working contract in Germany as well as expats who are under-skilled. Additionally, you are not obliged to pay the income tax or social security contributions if you are on a mini job contract. However, you have the same employment rights as permanent employees, such as sick benefits and additional holiday pay. Part-Time Contract (Teilzeitarbeitsvertrag): A part-time contract is a contract of employment where the employee works fewer or half the hours than a full-time employee. This type of contract is often used to provide flexibility to employees who cannot work full-time. Freelance contracts A freelance contract is a contract where the employee is self-employed and provides services to the client on a project-by-project basis. Freelancers are not considered as employees and are responsible for their own taxes and insurance. The two types of freelancer employment contracts that are popular In Germany are : Work contract (Werkvertrag) A work contract outlines a specific task the freelancer agrees with the client. It mainly focuses on the task rather than the period of time they work for that specific client. For instance, a software developer freelancer may enter a work contract with a client to fix specific bugs in a code. The freelancer then gets an agreed one time payment in exchange. Services contracts (Dienstvertrag) A freelancer may offer their service to a customer in exchange for a remuneration in these types of contracts. The contract may detail specific obligations during the period of the contract, period of the agreement and conditions for the contract termination. For instance, a freelance photographer offering his service to a model. Finally, let it be any kinds of the contract mentiond above, while your employment contract will detail different areas of expectations from you, you may check it thoroughly to avoid any surprises. Below checklist may help you focus on a few very important aspects. Description on your role Your personal details Duration of the contract If you have a probation period Location of the employment Conditions for termination Remuneration Hours of working hours Bonuses Additional benefits such as valuable pay Perks at work such as free food, free travel and home office, etc. Annual holidays Pension scheme Travel expectations Any additional clauses What is the probationary period in Germany? In Germany, the probationary period in job contracts can vary depending on the type of job and the collective agreement or individual employment contract. However, the standard duration of a probationary period for most jobs is usually six months. During this period, both the employer and employee have the right to terminate the contract with a shorter notice period than would be required for a regular employment contract. This allows both parties to assess whether the employment relationship is a good fit without a long-term commitment. It's worth noting that the duration of the probationary period can be extended in certain cases, such as if the employee has been absent from work due to illness or if the employee takes parental leave. However, in general, the maximum duration of the probationary period allowed by law is usually six months. What is the job security in Germany permanent job contracts? Job security is a significant benefit of permanent job contracts in Germany. Permanent contracts are open-ended and provide employees with long-term job security as compared to fixed-term contracts or temporary agency work. Once a permanent employment contract is signed, the employer can only terminate the contract in cases of serious misconduct, such as theft or fraud, or if there is a valid economic or behavioral reason for termination. In such cases, the employer must follow a strict legal process and provide the employee with notice and severance pay. Moreover, permanent employment contracts provide employees with certain legal protections against discrimination and unfair treatment in the workplace. If an employee is subject to unfair treatment or discrimination, they can file a complaint with the relevant authorities or seek legal recourse through the courts. Overall, permanent job contracts in Germany offer employees greater job security and legal protections compared to other types of employment contracts. However, it's worth noting that the job security provided by permanent contracts is not absolute, and employers can still terminate the contract in certain circumstances. What are the working hours in Germany on part-time job contracts? In Germany, part-time job contracts have specific regulations regarding working hours. Part-time employees are entitled to the same employment rights and benefits as full-time employees, but on a pro-rata basis. According to the Part-Time and Fixed-Term Employment Act, employers must specify the exact number of working hours and the distribution of working time in the part-time employment contract. Employers must also ensure that part-time employees receive proportionate benefits such as vacation, sick leave, and other entitlements based on the number of hours worked. Additionally, part-time employees in Germany are entitled to specific breaks and rest periods. For instance, employees are entitled to a minimum of 30 minutes of rest after six hours of continuous work. Employers are also required to provide part-time employees with adequate rest breaks during the working day. Overall, the working hours for part-time job contracts in Germany are subject to specific regulations that ensure that employees receive fair treatment and benefits. Employers must comply with these regulations to avoid legal liabilities and ensure that their employees are satisfied with their working conditions. Finally, the Part-time and Fixed-term Employment Act in Germany permits employees to reduce their working hours, subject to specific requirements. The act also allows for a fixed-term "bridge" period of part-time employment with the right to return to full-time work. The legislation aims to prevent discrimination against part-time workers. The Caregiver Leave Act and Family Caregiver Leave Act allow employees to care for their relatives in need of nursing care at home for up to six months, while being partly or fully released from work. All employees, regardless of their employment type, are entitled to the statutory guaranteed minimum standards. Employers and employees can also agree on more favorable working conditions through individual employment contracts or collective bargaining agreements. Your Guide to Understanding Types of Employment Contracts in Germany: Frequently Asked Questions

  • How to get a German Blue Card

    EU Blue Cards are issued by EU member states to third-country nationals. The holder of an EU Blue Card is entitled to take up residence in the EU for the purpose of taking up gainful employment. The EU Blue Card is designed in a way to attract the highly qualified professionals from third-countries to jobs where there is a shortage of qualified personnel or where a shortage is likely to arise in the future. The EU Blue Card is the main residence permit for university graduates from abroad. It is a simple and unbureaucratic procedure geared to third-country nationals keen to put their talents to use in Germany. In fact, An EU Blue Card can be applied for in all EU Member States apart from Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Slight differences apply with regard to the conditions, such as the amount of the gross annual salary. What opportunities does the EU Blue Card offer? Generally, an EU Blue Card is issued for the duration of your work contract, including 3 additional months, within a 4-year period. It is possible to be granted an extension if certain requirements are fulfilled. Your local Foreign Registration Authority (Ausländerbehörde) must approve of any job changes taking place within the first two years of employment. When you have a Blue Card, You may apply for a settlement permit after 33 months after getting a Blue Card. A settlement permit can be issued after 21 months if you can provide the proof of required language skills (at least a B1 level). Requirements to apply for an EU Blue Card? You have a German degree, a recognised foreign higher education degree, or you have a foreign higher education degree that is comparable to a German higher education degree. You already have an unlimited job contract / offer from a company in Germany. The position must be appropriate for someone with your qualifications (higher education degree) You have a minimum annual gross salary of 56,800 Euros. A reduced minimum annual gross salary of 44,304 Euros applies to employment in the occupational fields of mathematics, computer science, the natural sciences, engineering and human medicine (not including dentistry) (as of 2021 - the salary thresholds are readjusted for each calendar year). Documents Required for the German EU Blue Card Valid passport. A recent biometric photo. Fully filled and duly signed application form. Declaration on the Employment Relationship. (Erklärung zum Beschäftigungsverhältnis) Employment contract or job offer. Proof of residence (Wohnungsgeberbestätigung) OR your rental agreement Original degree or diploma certificate. Proof of insurance How to apply for a EU Blue Card in Germany Once you have all the documents ready, get an appointment at your local foreigner’s office (Ausländerbehörde). The official will verify the documents and accept your application. You will then be asked to make the payment by cash or by your bank card. Cost of a Blue Card for Germany First time issue: €100 Extension (up to three months) : €96 Extension more than three months: €93 Turkish citizens: €28.80 On your way to Germany You can find all the information you need about living and working in Germany at If you enjoyed the content and feel like you learned something from it, consider supporting us by buying us a Ko - fi

  • Arbeitslosengeld - Unemployment benefits in Germany

    In Germany, there are two types of unemployment benefits: Unemployment Benefit I for those who have contributed to the social security system and Unemployment Benefit II for those in need of financial support. Understanding the eligibility criteria and application process for each benefit is crucial for those experiencing job loss. Both benefits play a vital role in providing temporary financial assistance to individuals during their job search. Anybody could become jobless at any point in time due to any reason. However in Germany, you are covered if you become unemployed. Germany offers two types of unemployment benefits; unemployment benefit I (Arbeitslosengeld I / ALG 1) and unemployment benefit II (Arbeitslosengeld II / ALG 2). Depending on your individual situation, you can decide which one to apply to. Arbeitslosengeld I (Unemployment benefit I) Unemployment benefit I is financed by unemployment insurance. Id at all or how long you receive the unemployment benefit usually depends on how long you have contributed to the unemployment insurance; compulsorily or voluntarily. In general, you are insured for unemployment insurance as an employee. However, people who do mini jobs (up to 450€ PM ) and self-employed can voluntarily insure themselves. When you are entitled to unemployment benefit Entitlement to unemployment benefit is essentially subject to the following conditions: You meet the qualifying period. This usually means that you were employed for at least 12 months within the last 30 months before registering as unemployed (several occupations can be added together). You are registered as unemployed at your local employment agency (Arbeitsamt). You are not employed, but you can take up employment which is subject to compulsory insurance (at least 15 hours per week). You are looking for employment which is subject to compulsory insurance and work together and registered at the Employment Agency (Arbeitsamt). To avail the unemployment benefits, you must have a valid settlement permit or temporary residence permit in Germany. Entitlement in special cases In addition to the employment which is subject to compulsory insurance, there are other points that can be included for the entitlement to the unemployment benefit. For instance: You are voluntarily on unemployment insurance, for example during self-employment. You have raised a child (up to the age of 3). You have received Krankengeld (Sickness benefit). In these cases, too, you must have contributed to the unemployment insurance for a duration of at least 12 months within the last 30 months before registering as unemployed. If you have often been employed on a fixed-term basis, a shorter qualifying period applies under certain conditions: then at least 6 months of employment subject to compulsory insurance contribution in the 30 months prior to the registration as unemployed would be sufficient. How much unemployment benefit do I get? Here’s a simplified explanation of how the unemployment benefit is calculated. The calculation is based on your gross salary of the past 12 months. This amount is divided by the number of days of a year, i.e. 365. The result is your gross salary per day. From this, the wage tax, the solidarity surcharge and a lump sum for social security of 20 percent are deducted. (These deductions are for calculation purposes only and are not actually paid.) The result is your net salary per day. 60 percent of this net salary is the amount you receive as unemployment benefit per day. It increases to 67 percent if you or your spouse/partner have one or more children. Unemployment benefit calculator Calculate the amount of unemployment benefit individually with the unemployment benefit calculator of the Federal Employment Agency (ArbeitsAmt). To do this, you first select the year in which the claim arises or has arisen, for example 2020. How long you will receive unemployment benefits The duration for which you receive unemployment benefit depends on 2 factors: How long have you contributed to compulsory insurance, for example in the form of employment with contribution to the compulsory unemployment insurance. How old are you.. As a rule, the periods subject to compulsory insurance must be within the past 5 years. Different jobs can be added together. Duration of receipt for unemployed persons up to 50 years If you are under the age of 50, you can receive unemployment benefits for a maximum period of 12 months – provided you have previously contributed to compulsory insurance for 24 months or more. If you have contributed to compulsory insurance for the minimum period of 12 months, you can receive unemployment benefit for up to 6 months. Duration of receipt for unemployed persons aged 50 and over From the age of 50, the duration of the subscription increases in several steps to up to 24 months. This maximum duration applies to unemployed persons who are 58 years of age or older. As a prerequisite, you have contributed to compulsory insurance for 48 months or more. Duration of receipt for fixed-term employment If you meet the requirements for the shorter qualifying period, the following applies: For example, if you have 8 months contributions to the compulsory insurance, you can receive up to 4 months of unemployment benefit. How to apply for unemployment benefit I If you wish to apply for unemployment benefits, follow the below procedure as soon as possible to get the unemployment benefits without delay. Register at ArbeitsAmt Register in as soon as you resign. You need to register at least three months before the end of your employment contract. If you become unemployed unexpectedly, you need to register within three days of receiving the official confirmation from your employer. You can also reach out to their toll free number 0800 4 5555 00 or walk into the office and register in person. Please note that the officials may not always speak English. Therefore, it's better to bring a translator with you when you go there. Documents required to register You may bring the following documents with you: Valid passport Your Registration certificate (Anmeldebescheinigung) Your residence permit Relieving letter from your employer A resume Fill out and submit the application You get the application form at ArbeitsAmt during your appointment. You already download and fill out the form from before you go. Alternatively, you can do this online at the In two to three weeks, you will get a letter by post on the decision on your application. You may be invited for a meeting with a counsellor at arbeitsamt. The counselor will inform you further about the processes, aspects and expectations about the program. Hartz IV (Unemployment benefit II) Hartz IV / is the colloquial term for unemployment benefit II. This benefit of the Federal Employment Agency serves to secure your livelihood. Unemployment benefit II is intended to guarantee a dignified life. You can receive unemployment benefit II if You are able to work at least 3 hours a day, You are at least 15 years old and have not yet reached the statutory retirement age, You have your habitual residence in Germany You cannot or not sufficiently secure your livelihood (and that of your family) yourself or You live with an employable person entitled to benefits in a community of need. Unemployment benefit II is only paid to persons in need of assistance. Therefore, they must first use their own funds before receiving financial aid. If you have income or assets, you must first secure your livelihood if allowances are exceeded. You may receive the Sozialgeld (social benefits) if you are not capable of earning due to any health or other reasons, but if you live in a joint household with someone who is entitled to the unemployment benefit II. Unemployment benefit II: payment and duration Unemployment benefit II is usually granted for 12 months. However, unemployment benefit II is only granted for 6 months under certain conditions. If your income fluctuates, If you are self-employed or If the cost of your accommodation and its heating is unreasonable. The normal requirement globally covers the costs of food, clothing, household energy (without heating and warm water generation), personal hygiene, household effects, needs of everyday life, as well as to a reasonable extent also relates to the environment and participation in cultural life. Singles, single parents, as well as adults with a minor partner are entitled to the full amount of normal requirement. Since 1 January 2016, this is EUR 404 for all of Germany. The normal requirement for adult partners is EUR 364. Children younger than 6 years receive EUR 237. Between 6 and including 13 years of age this is EUR 270. Children and young persons between 14 and 17 years receive EUR 306. For young adults from 15 years on and below 25 years who live with their parents or who moved without the positive assertion of the municipal authority, this is EUR 324. Young adults who are 25 years and older must file their own application for (ALG II), regardless of the fact whether they live in their own flat or with their parents. Persons living in their own household form a separate benefit community (BG) if they are at least 15 years old. The official portal of arbeitsagentur has documented the concept well in detail. How to apply for unemployment benefit II Unemployment benefit II is only granted when you use up all other benefits such as Child benefits, Housing benefits, Parental allowance etc. If you cannot meet your basic living needs even after using all the other benefits, you may apply for the unemployment benefit II Register at your local Jobcentre You have to visit your local Jobcenter in person and register. Documents required to register at the local Jobcenter Valid passport Social security ID (Sozialversicherungsnummer / ID) Your residence permit (if required) During your appointment, the counselor who’s attending you will discuss your individual situation and detail the processes and features about the program. Fill out and submit your application for Unemployment Benefit II Your counselor will provide you with the relevant forms and documentation at your initial appointment. You may also apply online on the official arbeitsagentur portal. Please note that you may have to provide additional documents such as bank statements or salary slips, etc. Once the application is submitted, the agency will consider it at the earliest chance. You will receive a notification by post if you are eligible to receive the benefit. The notification will include the schedule of payments as well as the immediate next steps you need to do; such as applying for jobs, taking training, etc.

  • How to get German citizenship as an expat?

    Living in Germany for a certain period of time may grant you the opportunity to apply for German citizenship upon fulfilling additional criteria. There are a couple of ways you can acquire your German citizenship. However, we discuss only the options that are relevant to an expat living in Germany on a residence permit for a long period. If you plan to apply for German citizenship, you need to meet and follow a few strict requirements and guidelines. Rights I get through German citizenship German citizenship comes with many rights including but not limited to The right to participate and vote in the national as well as state elections. The ability to enter and leave the country freely. The right to apply for a German passport. The right to be a civil servant. Additionally, you will automatically get European Union citizenship with the right to freedom of movement. German citizenship by naturalisation Although it involves undergoing several processes and longer waiting periods, expats who wish to obtain German citizenship usually choose this option as it is more meaningful and approachable to them. Requirements to obtain German citizenship by naturalisation To be eligible for naturalization, a person has to have lived legally in Germany for at least eight years and possess the appropriate residence permit. Foreigners who have successfully completed an integration course are eligible for naturalization after seven years. Even if you do not fulfill any of the requirements mentioned below, you may still apply for a Discretionary naturalisation (including renaturalisation of former German citizens). However, the final decision is taken by your local authorities. In general, consider yourself eligible if you satisfy below listed criteria. The local authority will let you know if additional requirements have to be met according to your particular situation. You can or are willing to give away your previous citizenship (s) You should have lived legally in Germany for at least eight years and possess the appropriate residence permit. You can financially support yourself as well as your dependents without the supporting benefits from the federal government (unemployment benefits, child benefits or Housing benefit, etc) You’ve successfully passed the German naturalisation test. You do not have a criminal record or you are not an extremist. You have sufficient German language skills (B1 level) Even though it is required to complete eight years to apply for the citizenship, it is not required if you have a local like German proficiency with more than six years living in Germany OR if you are married to a German citizen (by birth or by naturalization) for more than two years and you are living in Germany for more than three years, OR if you live in Germany for more than seven years and you’ve done a German integration course in a Volkshochschule. Documents required for German citizenship application While each person’s individual situation demands additional documents to support their German citizenship application, below listed are the generally applicable documents. Current passport Proof of financial stability (your salary slip,investment statement,bank statement,etc) Birth certificate Marriage / partner registration certificate (if applicable) German language proficiency certificate Naturalisation test certificate How to apply for German citizenship? Once you find out that you satisfy all the mandatory criteria and you have all the documents, you need to contact your Ausländerbehörde (Local Foreigners’ Office) or the citizens’ office (Bürgeramt). Which authority in Germany is responsible to process your application depends on which Land (federal state) you reside. Therefore, it is best to ask your municipal or district authorities or foreigners authority to make sure that you are applying to the right body. The citizenship authority responsible for people who do not have their habitual abode in Germany is the Federal Office of Administration, a subordinate agency of the Federal Ministry of the Interior ( If this applies to you, please seek initial advice from the German Embassy or Consulate-General responsible for your place of residence. Numerous German missions abroad have information about citizenship issues on their websites. The citizenship authority which is responsible for you will then invite you for an initial sitting and provide you with all the necessary information and forms. Then you can follow the guidelines, fill the forms and finally submit your application. You can request for your children under the age of 18 years to be naturalised along with you to get German nationality for them too. German citizenship application cost The fee for regular or discretionary naturalization is €255. A reduced fee of €51 applies for each dependent minor child naturalized along with a parent. Fees may be reduced or waived completely in certain cases depending on each individual’s situation. How long does it take to process the German citizenship application? Depending on the federal state where you’ve applied, your application can take from a couple of weeks to months to get a decision on your application. Decision on German citizenship application If your citizenship application is successful, you will get a notification by post with in few weeks of your application. You must follow a guideline and finally attend a citizenship awarding ceremony to complete the process. Your letter will contain instructions on how to complete this process. You swear an oath of faithfulness to Germany’s custom and laws in the event. What to do if my German citizenship application is rejected? If your application was unsuccessful, you will receive notification by post detailing the reasons behind the rejection. You can speak to your citizenship authority or local foreigner’s office to see if you can go for an appeal. In that case, you may have to contact a lawyer to help you file the appeal. Please check the benefits of having legal insurance in Germany. Retention of your old citizenship Upon receiving German citizenship, you may have to surrender your passport and citizenship from your home country. However, you can still keep your previous citizenship if You are a European Union or Swiss national. If you get the permission from the German officials to keep your previous citizenship under special cases.. Your country doesn’t allow you to surrender your citizenship due to a special reason. There could be other reasons that can prevent you from surrendering your previous citizenship. Please check with your foreign ministry office if you can still keep your citizenship. On your way to Germany You can find all the information you need about living and working in Germany at If you enjoyed the content and feel like you learned something from it, consider supporting us by buying us a Ko - fi

  • How can I bring my family to Germany?

    Moving to a new country can be an exciting yet daunting experience, especially when you're separated from your loved ones. Fortunately, with a German reunification visa, you can bring your family to join you in Germany. Whether you're relocating for work or to start a new life, this visa allows you to reunite with your spouse and children in one of the most beautiful and prosperous countries in Europe. The process for bringing your spouse or partner or children to Germany depends on whether they are European Union citizens or not. EU Citizens If the person you want to bring to Germany is a European Union citizen, they do not need a visa or a residence permit. EU citizens are allowed to live and work in Germany or any EU member states without a visa or residence permit using their Freedom of Movement rights. Other Nationals Bringing other nationals requires a little bit of effort and sometimes it's a lengthy process. To start with the process, you need to make sure that you have the necessary rights to bring your family members to Germany. You need to have either a permanent residency, a permanent settlement permit, or an EU blue Card. Where should I apply for a German visa for my spouse or partner In general your spouse or partner can apply for a family reunification visa in any German mission where they reside. However, the German mission in some countries have outsourced the visa processing to third party visa centers. Check if your spouse's country have a German mission As per the visa policy of Germany you should not apply for a visa six months prior to your planned trip. The latest time you can apply is two weeks ahead of your trip. The recommended time to file your visa application would be four to six weeks before your planned date of travel. Documents required to apply for a family reunification visa for Germany Fully filled and duly signed Visa Application Form. Valid Passport. Biometric passport photo. Travel health insurance Proof of German knowledge (optional) Flight tickets Documents to prove your financial stability (salary slips, employment contract and bank statements) Proof of accommodation in Germany (rental agreement, hotel booking, etc.). Copy of your passport. Copy of your residence permit (if applicable) Proof of relationship Marriage certificate. Registered partnership certificate Processing time of a German family reunification visa The visa processing time varies depending on the location you apply for the visa, your personal situation or even where the visa is processed. For example, the places where the visa processing is outsourced may send the application to the nearest German mission to process it. In general, it could take from days to a couple of weeks. Bringing your children to Germany You can bring your children who are under the age of 18 years to Germany on a family reunification visa provided you have the custody of the child. If your partner is not moving to Germany and you both have joint custody of the child, the partner who’s not moving must give their consent before applying for the visa. You can also bring your matured children to Germany if they are differently abled and need support. However, you may need to undergo a different process and might need to submit additional supporting documents. Additional documents required for children : School certificates mentioning parentage and date of birth Proof of marriage of parents Birth certificate (optional) Bringing your family to Germany offers many benefits. Not only the financial benefits offered by the federal government, but from small towns to big cities, Germany is a very safe country to raise a family and a great place to live. Some FAQ about How can I bring my family to Germany?

  • How to apply for a German passport (Deutscher Reisepass)

    As soon as you get your German citizenship, you can apply for a German passport (deutscher Reisepass). You’d require a passport to travel outside of the EU Being one of the strongest passports in the world, you’d be able to travel up to 170 countries without having a visa prior to your travel if you have a German passport. How do I apply for a German passport You need to make an appointment at the Bürgeramt (Local citizen’s office) where you are registered. Please note that you have to be present at the appointment in person and nobody else can apply on your behalf. You may also apply at the local citizens’ offices in other municipalities. However, additional fees may be charged. Documents required for a German passport application When you make the appointment, you need to bring the below mentioned supporting documents along with you. Documents to prove your German nationality as well as your identity. (it could be your old passport or any type of photo ID card) Two identical biometric recent passport photos with respect to the guidelines issued by the Federal government. Your German naturalisation certificate, (optional). Completed application form Other supporting documents if required Biometric details such as the fingerprints of your left index fingers will be collected at the time of your appointment. German passport application cost The cost depends on the location you apply for, urgency, your age, pages required, etc. Information as per the German mission in the USA The German passport of an adult is valid for up to 10 years. The passports of people under 24 years old are valid for six years. The child passport (Kinderpass) is also valid for six years or until the child reaches 12 years of age. Processing time for a German passport application In general a German passport application could take from three to six weeks. Once ready, you’ll get a notification and then you can pick it up from your local citizens' office. You may also authorize someone else to collect it on behalf of you. However, you need to provide a signed authorization letter to the person representing you. You can also speed up the process if you need the passport quicker. Upon paying additional fees, you might be able to pick up your passport within three working days. However, this depends on the rush in the office. How to renew a German passport? The renewal procedure is the same as applying for a new passport. However, you need to surrender your expired passport along with the other documents required for a new passport. However, you may be allowed to keep your old passport (only if it is still valid) if you have to travel while your renewal application is being processed. How do I apply for a German passport from abroad A German citizen living abroad may renew / apply for a new German passport at the German mission in the country of residence. You have to visit the German mission abroad in person after making an appointment in advance. You have to bring a completed and duly signed passport application form as well as other supporting documents. It may take around four to six weeks to process your application abroad. On your way to Germany You can find all the information you need about living and working in Germany at If you enjoyed the content and feel like you learned something from it, consider supporting us by buying us a Ko - fi

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